In 1799 Gauss presented the first rigorous proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, which states that a polynomial of degree *n* has exactly *n* roots (counting multiplicities). Gauss achived world-wide fame when he successfully calculated the orbit of the first asteroid discovered, Ceres, using scanty data.

Gauss was called the Prince of Mathematics by his contemporary matematicians. Although Gauss is noted for his many discoveries in geometry, algebra, analysis, and physics (Gauss' Law), he had a special interest in number theory, which can be seen from his statement "Mathematics is the queen of the sciences, and the theory of numbers is the queen of mathematics." Gauss laid the foundations for modern number theory with the publication of his book *Disquisitiones Arithmeticae* in 1801.

Sources: MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive (http://www-groups.dcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/~history/), Encyclopedia Britannica, __Discrete Math and Its Applications__